MPŠ MP&Scaron MP&Scaron MP&Scaron Avtorji

Jožef Stefan
Postgraduate School

Jamova 39
SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 1 477 31 00
Fax: +386 1 477 31 10


Course Description

Sensors in Process Control


Sensor Technologies


prof. dr. Juš Kocijan


Course objectives:
• understanding theoretical principles of sensors in process control,
• knowing of the issues in industrial sensors' implementation,
• ability for sensor-systems design,
• ability to evaluate various sensor systems,
• training of competent professionals that are able to communicate with control-systems design engineers.

• knowledge of basic concepts of process-control measurements,
• knowledge of the most frequent industrial measurements systems,
• ability for comparitive analysis for selection and proper implementation of the most frequent sensors in process control,
• ability for comparative analysis of used signals and types of data transmission in process-control systems.


• Most important process-control elements
• Sensors and tranducers.
• Actuators and final elements.
• Controllers, PLCs and process computer systems.
• Communication links between control- system elements.

Proximity sensors
• Properties of types of proximity sensors:
o inductive sensors,
o capacitive sensors,
o optical sensors,
o magnetic sensors,
o ultrasonic sensors,
o pneumatic sensors.
• Important issues for proximity sensors selection.
• Instructions for practical use of proximity sensors.

Temperature measurement in process industry
• Frequently used temperature sensors.
• Problems in temperature measurements with Pt resistance sensors.
• Some problems in using thermocouples.
• Instructions for practical use of temperature sensors.

Pressure measurement in process industry
• Some problems in pressure measurement in industrial environments.
• Instructions for practical use of pressure sensors.

Flow measurement in process industry
• General introduction in flow measurement.
• Differential-pressure based flowmeters.
• Electromagnetic inductive flowmeter.
• Vortex flowmeter.
• Coriolis flowmeter.
• Termical-mass flowmeters.
• Instructions for practical use of flowmeters.

Signals and data transmission in industrial process control systems
• Two-line connection of measurement transducers.
• Some examples of disturbances in signal connections.
• Digital communications between measurement transducers.

Course literature:

• Belič. Gradniki in tehnologije v sistemih vodenja. Založba FE in FRI, Ljubljana,
• 2012.
• J. Petrovčič, J. Kocijan. Uporaba gradnikov v sistemih vodenja. Založba FE in FRI, Ljubljana,
• 2002.
• W. de Silva. Sensors and actuators: control system instrumentation. CRC Press, Boca
• Raton, Florida, 2007.

• Sensors, MDPI, ISSN 1424-8220.
• IEEE Sensors Journal, IEEE, ISSN: 1530-437X.
• IEEE Control Systems, IEEE, ISSN: 1066-033X.

Significant publications and references:

• 56 original scientific articles,
• 4 invited lectures,
• 95 conference contributions,
• 1 patent application,
• 2 monographs,
• 10 other completed works,
• 5 university education textbooks,
• > 240 pure citations,
• h-index: 9.

Representative papers:
• KOCIJAN, Juš, HVALA, Nadja. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models. Bioresource technology, ISSN 0960-8524. [Print ed.], jun. 2013, vol. 137, str. 340-348, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.138. [COBISS.SI-ID 26698535]
• JUŽNIČ-ZONTA, Živko, KOCIJAN, Juš, FLOTATS, Xavier, VREČKO, Darko. Multi-criteria analyses of wastewater treatment bio-processes under an uncertainty and a multiplicity of steady states. Water res. (Oxford). [Print Ed.], 2012, vol. 46, no. 18, str. 6121-6131, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.08.035. [COBISS.SI-ID 26152231]
• AŽMAN, Kristjan, KOCIJAN, Juš. Dynamical systems identification using Gaussian process models with incorporated local models. Eng. appl. artif. intell.. [Print ed.], 2011, vol. 24, no. 2, str. 398-408. [COBISS.SI-ID 24397095]

Nosilec raziskovalnih projektov 5.OP MAC, več bilateralnih projektov in ARRS projektov »Identifikacija in analiza modelov za načrtovanje vodenja dinamičnih sistemov na podlagi Gaussovih procesov« in »Razvoj in izvedba metode za sprotno modeliranje in napovedovanje onesnaženja zraka«.


Seminar work with presentation and defence of the proposed solving of the selected problem from student’s research work (50%)

Written exam, which assesses knowledge of the theory and the implementation of concepts of sensors in process control (50%)

Students obligations:

Seminar work with presentation and defence of the proposed solving of the selected problem from student’s research work.

Written exam, which assesses knowledge of the theory and the implementation of concepts of sensors in process control.