MPŠ MP&Scaron MP&Scaron MP&Scaron Avtorji

Jožef Stefan
Postgraduate School

Jamova 39
SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 1 477 31 00
Fax: +386 1 477 31 10


Course Description



Ecotechnologies, second-level study programme


prof. dr. Ljudmila Benedik


Introduce the students the basic understanding of radioactivity, radioactive decays, natural and man-made radionuclides in the environment, their origin, production and use.

The students will get on overview of separation techniques as well as measurement capabilities to detect radionuclides and determine their activity, processes to improve the limit of detection and statistics of radioactive decay.

Radiochemistry in day-to-day practice will be presented substantially, as an in-sight into the common duties of a radiochemistry lab researcher has to deal with and how to approach the real problems with the basic knowledge of nuclear and radiochemistry.


• Radioisotopes in the environment, medicine and industry (radioactive decay and equilibrium, interaction with matter, sources of radionuclides and their properties)

• Radiochemical methods of analysis and applications (sampling, separation, measurement and interpretation of data, use of radioactive tracers)

• Measurement of nuclear radiation (basic overview, activity and counting rate, choice of detectors, radiochemical preconcentration methods, counting statistics)

• Basics of nuclear reactions (cross-section and excitation functions, with charged particles or neutrons, nuclear fission),

• Production of radionuclides and labelled compounds (production routes, separation techniques, labelled compounds and their use)

• Use of nuclear energy (nuclear fuel cycle chemistry, radioactive waste, general overview of separation techniques and use of tracers)

• Application of methods and techniques relevant to the specific postgraduate research projects.

Course literature:

1.) Radiochemistry, ed. by C. Keller, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester. Distribution: John Wiley. &. Sons Ltd., ISBN 0-7458-0522-1, 1988.

2.) Nuclear and Radiochemistry, Fundamentals and applications, ed. By K.H.Lieser, ISBN: 978-3-527-30317-5, 2001.

3.) Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis, William D. Ehmann, Diane E. Vance (editors), ISBN: 978-0-471-30628-3, 1993.

4.) Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals: Radiochemistry and Applications Michael J. Welch, Carol S. Redvanly (editors), ISBN: 978-0-471-49560-4, 2002.

5.) G. R. Choppin, J.-O. Liljenzin, J. Rydberg. Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry. Woburn: Butterworth-Heinemann (2002), 709 p., ISBN 0-7506-7463-6

6.) K. H. Lieser. Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Weinheim: Wiley - VCH (2001), 462 p., ISBN 3-527-30317-0

7.) A. Vértes, S. Nagy, Z. Klencsár (eds.). Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers (2003), set of 5 volumes, ISBN 1-4120-1305-1

Significant publications and references:

• R. Jakopič, S. Richter, H. Kühn, L. Benedik, B. Pihlar and Y. Aregbe. Isotope measurements of pg-size plutonium sampleusing TIMS in combination with “multiple ion counting” and filament carburization. Int. J. Mass Spectrometry, 2008, in press.

• L. Benedik, Y. Spasova, M. Vasile and U. Wätjen: Sequential determination of 210 Po and uranium radioisotopes in drinking water by alpha-particle spectrometry. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes, 2009, in press

• U. Repinc, L. Benedik and B. Pihlar. Determination of cobalt in biological materials by RNAA via induced short-lived
60mCo. Mikrochim. Acta, 162, 141-146, 2008.

• R. Jakopič, P. Tavčar and L. Benedik. Sequential determination of Pu and Am radioisotopes in environmental samples : a comparison of two separation procedures. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes. 65, 504-511, 2007.

• P. Tavčar and L. Benedik. Determination of actinides and 90 Sr in spent ion exchange resins. Radiochim. Acta, 23, 623-625, 2005.

• P. Tavčar, R. Jakopič and L. Benedik. Sequential determination of 241 Am, 237 Np. Pu radioisotopes and 90 Sr in soil and sediment samples. Acta Chim. Slov. 52, 60-66, 2005.

• L. Benedik and U. Repinc. Determination of 237 Np neutron activation analysis and alpha spectrometry. V: WARWICK, Peter (ur.). The Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis held on 18-20 September 2003 in Maidstone, Kent, UK. Environmental radiochemical analysis II. Cambridge: The royal Society of Chemistry, 245-247, 2003.

• R. Jaćimović, V. Stibilj, L. Benedik and B. Smodiš. Characterization of the neutron flux gradients in typical irradiation channels of a TRIGA Mark II reactor. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 257, 545-549 2003.

• L. Benedik, H. Klemenčič, U. repinc and P. Tavčar. Uranium and its decay products in samples contaminated with uranium mine and mill waste. J. Phys., IV. 107, 147-150, 2003.

• U. Repinc and L. Benedik. Development of a method for determination of 226 Ra by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 254, 181-185, 2002.

• L. Benedik, P. Tavčar, Polona. Determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental samples. Acta Chim. Slov. 48, 199-213, 2001.

• L. Benedik, H. Pintar and A.R. Byrne. The leachability of some natural amd man-made radionuclides from soil and sediments on acid attack. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 240, 859-865, 1999.

• B. Smodiš. Investigation of trace element atmospheric pollution by nuclear analytical techniques at a global scale: Harmonised approaches supported by the IAEA, J. Environ. Management, 85, 121-128, 2007.

• P. Tavčar, B. Smodiš, L. Benedik. Radiological characterization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 273, 593-596, 2007.

• J. Kučera, J. Mizera, U. Repinc, B. Smodiš. Simultaneous low-level determination of iodine and manganese in biological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, Czech. J. Phys. 56, Suppl. D, D151-D157, 2006.

• B. Smodiš, U. Repinc, L. Benedik. Identification and inventory of TENORM sources in Slovenia, Czech. J. Phys. 56, Suppl. D, D37-D42, 2006.

• B. Smodiš. University-level education in nuclear and radiochemistry in Slovenia, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 270, 259-261, 2006.


Type (oral coursework)

• Seminar and oral exam (100%)
• Practical training in the lab

Students obligations:

• Seminar and oral exam
• Practical training in the lab