MPŠ MP&Scaron MP&Scaron MP&Scaron Avtorji

Jožef Stefan
Postgraduate School

Jamova 39
SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 1 477 31 00
Fax: +386 1 477 31 10


Course Description

Hydrology and Environment


Ecotechnologies, third-level study programme


prof. dr. Sonja Lojen


The main goal of the course is understanding of hydrological cycle, material transport through hydrosphere and interactions with lithosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. The course focuses on interactions between man and natural environment, as well as the consequences of human activities for environment degradation and protection.



Hydrological cycle, water resources and environment:

Precipitation: formation and classification of precipitation, geographical and temporal distribution, interactions with atmosphere and geosphere, precipitation measurement, extreme precipitation events, erosion

Infiltration and soil water: soil-water relationship, basic soil characteristics, soil-water retention, soil water balance, soil water analysis, infiltration rate, water movement through soil horizons, interactions of water and water-borne substances with soils

Evapotranspiration: basic evapotranspiration processes, soil and plant evapotranspiration, water retention in soil and vegetation, water uptake, evaporation and evapotranspiration measurements, input parameters, calculation

Runoff: watershed characteristics, runoff characteristics, estimation and forecast of runoff, hydrographic methods, extreme events, subsurface water flow, modifications of surface flow in water management

Rivers: interaction between river and landscape, characteristics of rivers and river biota, river evolution, flow stability, material transport, catchment management

Soil protection and sediment balance: erosion, soil loss, soil loss tolerance, sediment balance concept

Forest and wetland hydrology: basic principles, energy and water balance, interactions with biota

Hydrogeology: groundwater flow, water-rock interaction, aquifers

Man and water cycle: water status assessment, urban hydrology, forecast and regulation of flood events, water retention, water treatment systems, landfills

Legislation for water management


Course literature:

Ward, A., Elliot, W., 2003. Environmental Hydrology. CRC, 504 pp.
Singh, V.P., 1995. Environmental Hydrology, Springer, 500 pp.
Watson, I., Brunett, A., 1993: Hydrology: an Environmental Approach. CRC press. 722 pp.
Appelo, C.A.J., Postma,D., 2005. Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution. Taylor & Francis, 649pp.

Significant publications and references:

SONDI, Ivan, LOJEN, Sonja, JURAČIĆ, Mladen, PROHIĆ, Esad. Mechanisms of land-sea interactions - the distribution of metals and sedimentary organic matter in sediments of a river-dominated Mediterranean karstic estuary. Estuar., coast. shelf sci., 2008, vol. 80, no. 1, str. 12-20
LOJEN, Sonja, ČERMELJ, Branko, WARTEL, Michel. Sulfur cycling and the sulfurization of humic and fulvic acids in the sediments of the rivers Rupel (Belgium) and Authie (northern France). Oceanol. Hydrobiol. Stud., 2007, vol. 36, no. 1, str. 83-101
DOCTOR, Daniel H., ALEXANDER, E. C., PETRIČ, Metka, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, URBANC, Janko, LOJEN, Sonja, STICHLER, Wilibald. Quantification of Karst aquifer discharge components during storm events through
end-member mixing analysis using natural chemistry and stable isotopesas tracers. Hydrogeol. j., 2006, vol. 14, str. 1171-1191
VOKAL, Barbara, SZARAN, Janina, TREMBACZOWSKI, Andrzej, HALAS, Stanislaw, DOLENEC, Tadej, LOJEN, Sonja. Sulphate sources in the Sava and Ljubljanica rivers, Slovenia, inferred from sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions. Aquat. geochem., 2006, vol. 12, str. 199-220
LOJEN, Sonja, SPANIER, Ehud, TSEMEL, Anat, KATZ, Timor, EDEN, Noa, ANGEL, Dror. [delta][sup](15) as a natural tracer of particulate nitrogen effluents released from marine aquaculture. Mar. biol. (Berl.), 2005, vol.
148, str. 87-96.
LOJEN, Sonja, DOLENEC, Tadej, VOKAL, Barbara, CUKROV, Neven, MIHELČIĆ, Goran, PAPESCH, Wolfgang. C and O stable isotope variability in recent freshwater carbonates (River Krka, Croatia). Sedimentology, apr. 2004, vol. 51, no. 2, str. 361-375.
LOJEN, Sonja, OGRINC, Nives, DOLENEC, Tadej, VOKAL, Barbara, SZARAN, Janina, MIHELČIĆ, Goran, BRANICA, Marko. Nutrient fluxes and sulfur cycling in the organic-rich sediment of Makirina bay (Central Dalmatia, Croatia). Sci. total environ.. [Print ed.], 2004, vol. 327, str. 265-284.


Seminar, oral exam.

Students obligations:

Seminar and oral exam.