MPŠ MP&Scaron MP&Scaron MP&Scaron Avtorji

Jožef Stefan
Postgraduate School

Jamova 39
SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 1 477 31 00
Fax: +386 1 477 31 10


Course Description

Radioactive Wastes


Ecotechnologies, third-level study programme


prof. dr. Borut Smodiš


The postgraduate students will gain an in-depth knowledge and understanding of issues related to radioactive wastes such as their sources, types, handling principles, partitioning and transfer of particular radionuclides in the environment, as well as their management in case of radiological emergencies. The students will be introduced into the selected techniques of characterization and conditioning of radioactive waste, and methods for their safe storage and disposal into the environment. Emphasis will be on the radioactive waste containing natural and artificial radionuclides emerging as consequence of operating technologies for the electricity production.


1. Origin of radioactive waste (mining and milling; nuclear power generation; institutional activities; weapon-related waste; environmental inventories)

2. Waste types and classes (exempt waste; low and intermediate level waste; high level waste and spent fuel; short lived and long lived)

3. Characterization of radioactive waste and radioactively contaminated sites (strategy and important factors to consider in defining a waste characterization programme; characterization methodologies for different waste categories; review of characterization methods and techniques)

4. Conditioning, processing and storage of radioactive waste (technical factors affecting the selection of waste management technologies; waste processing and storage planning; selection of an efficient organizational system and technologies)

5. Radionuclide environmental transport (additional investigations to support site characterization; population parameters; characterizing radionuclide transport and migration; characterization of physico-chemical form of radionuclides, speciation)

Course literature:

IAEA. Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes. IAEA-TECDOC-1017, Vienna, 1998.

N. Chapman, C. McCombie. Principles and standards for the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004.

IAEA. Strategy and methodology for radioactive waste characterization. IAEA-TECDOC-1537, Vienna, 2007.

Significant publications and references:

• B. Smodiš. Applied environmental metrology for studying health-pollution interactions. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 259: 181-185, 2004.

• B. Smodiš, U. Repinc, L. Benedik. Identification and inventory of TENORM sources in Slovenia. Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, Vol. 56, Supplement D, vol. 56: D37-D42, 2006.

• B. Smodiš. University-level education in nuclear and radiochemistry in Slovenia. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 270: 259-261, 2006.

• B. Smodiš, T. Bučar. Overall measurement uncertainty of k[sub]0-based neutron activation analysis. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 269: 311-316, 2006.

• T. Bučar, B. Smodiš. Assessment of the intrinsic uncertainty of the k[sub]0-based NAA. Nucl. Instrum, Methods Phys Res., Sect. A, Accel., vol. 564: 683-687, 2006.

• B. Smodiš. Investigation of trace element atmospheric pollution by nuclear analytical techniques at a global scale: harmonised approaches supported by the IAEA. J. Environ. Manag., vol. 85: 121-128, 2007.

• P. Tavčar, B. Smodiš, L. Benedik. Radiological characterization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 273: 593-596, 2007.

• T. Bučar, B. Smodiš, R. Jaćimović, Z. Jeran. Quality assessment of k[sub]0-NAA by statistical evaluation of CRM results. Acta Chim. Slov., vol. 55: 166-171, 2008.

• T. Bučar, B. Smodiš. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k[sub]0-NAA measurement results. Nucl. Instrum, Methods Phys Res., Sect. A, Accel., vol. 595: 647-652, 2008.

• M. Štrok, U. Repinc, B. Smodiš. Calibration and validation of a proportional counter for determining beta emitters. J. Power Energy Syst., vol. 2, no. 2: 573-581, 2008.


Seminar and oral examination.

Students obligations:

Seminar and oral examination.