MPŠ MP&Scaron MP&Scaron MP&Scaron Avtorji

Jožef Stefan
Postgraduate School

Jamova 39
SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 1 477 31 00
Fax: +386 1 477 31 10


Course Description

Vacuum Science and Technology


Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, third-level study programme


prof. dr. Janez Kovač
prof. dr. Miran Mozetič


Students gain basic and practical knowledge on fundamentals of vacuum techniques and technology.
Modern industrial devices, equipments and analytical instruments must operate under vacuum in the pressure range from few mbar (rough vacuum) to less than 10-7 mbar (ultrahigh vacuum). The students gain knowledge on vacuum generation, vacuum measurement, vacuum components and systems, leaks and their detection, and vacuum materials. The importance of vacuum for surface engineering and plasma treatment of surfaces will be pointed out. Physico-chemical properties of reactive plasma will be discussed. Plasma technologies for treatment of nanomaterials like, cleaning, surface activation, surface functionalization and selective etching will be explained. Further, the course will provide the basic knowledge of vacuum optoelectronics and electron field emission properties of novel nanostructured materials.
Students gain knowledge on basic principals of modern surface analytical techniques, like Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), which are often used for the characterization of surfaces, thin-film structures and nanomaterials. The characterization of nanomaterials with recently developed X-ray microscopy technique will be discussed in the course too.


Introduction in vacuum physics, basic terms, units of measure and definitions in vacuum techniques and technology, vacuum generation: vacuum pumpes, pumping speed, pumping of gases, pumping of gases and vapors, production of an oil-free vacuum, ultrahigh vacuum techniques, types of flow.
Vacuum measurement: from 1000 mbar to 10-12 mbar, selection of vacuum gauges for different pressure ranges principles of measurements, analysis of residual gases using mass spectrometry, detection of leaks, leak rate.
Vacuum components, systems and materials: conductions, flanges, valves, vacuum systems working at different vacuum regions, metals, glasses, ceramic.
Physico-chemical processes at the surfaces of materials: evaporation, sublimation, sorption, desorption, absorption, segregation, diffusion, permeation.
Surface engineering: processes which modify the surface of engineering components to improve their performance, surface preparation, surface treatment, coating of material surface, PVD and CVD coatings.
Low pressure reactive plasma treatment: thermodynamically non-equilibrium state of gas, cleaning, surface activation, surface functinalization, selective etching.
Vacuum optoelectronics: outgassing properties of materials, thermal desorption, electron induced desorption, hydrogen diffusion, diffusion barriers, the rate-of-rise method, electron field emission, novel nanostructured optoelectronic materials.
Surface analytical techniques working in ultrahigh vacuum: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), physical principles, sempling depth in nano region, spatial resolution, sensitivity, quantification, data processing, depth profiling, angle resolved techniques, characterization of nanomaterials by X-ray microscopy techniques.

Course literature:

1.) V. Nemanič (urednik): Vakuumska znanost in tehnika, Društvo za vakuumsko tehniko Slovenije, Ljubljana, 2003.
2.) J. Gasperič: Nasveti za uporabnike vakuumske tehnike, Društvo za vakuumsko tehniko Slovenije, Ljubljana, 2002.
3.) J. M. Lafferty (editor): Foundations of Vacuum Science and Technique, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, (1998).
4.) M. Wutz, H. Adam, W. Walcher: Theory and Practice of Vacuum Technology, Third Edition Friedr. Vieweg and Son. Braunschweig, (1989).
5.) W. Umrath (editor): Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology, Leybold, Köln, 1998.
6.) Motoichi Ohisu (editor): Optical and Electronic Process of Nano-Matters, KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo, (2001).
7.) D. Briggs and M. P. Seah (Editors): Practical Surface Analysis, Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Second Edition, Wiley. Chichester (1990).
8.) D. Briggs, J. T. Grant (eds.): Surface Analysis by Auger and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, IM Publications, Chichester, 2003.
9.) D. Atwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
10.) A. Ricard: Reactive plasmas, Societe Francaise du Vide, Paris, 1996.

Significant publications and references:

1.) A. Zalar, B. Praček, P. Panjan, Effects of surface on depth resolution of AES depth profiles of Ni/Cr multilayers. Surf. Interface Anal., 30, 247 (2000), 247.
2.) A. Zalar, J. van Lier, E. J. Mittemeijer, J. Kovač, Interdiffusion at TiO2/Ti, TiO2/Ti3Al and TiO2/TiAl interfaces studied in bilayer structures, Surf. Interface Anal., 34 (2002), 514.
3.) J. Kovač, Zalar, B. Praček, Quantification of AES depth profiles by the MRI model, Appl. Surf. Science, 207 (2003), 128.
4.) J. Kovač, P. Panjan, A. Zalar, XPS analysis of WxCy thin films prepared by sputter deposition, Vacuum, 82 (2007), 150.
5.) A. Zalar, J. Kovač, B. Praček, S. Hofmann, P. Panjan, AES depth profiling and interface analysis of C/Ta bilayers, Appl. Surf. Sci., 252 (2005), 2056.
6.) M. Mozetič, A. Zalar, P. Panjan, M. Bele, S. Pejovnik, R. Grmek, A method of studying carbon particle distribution in pant films, Thin Solid Films, 376 (2000), 5.
7.) A. Vesel, M. Mozetič, J. Kovač, A. Zalar, XPS study of the deposited Ti layer in a magnetron-type sputter ion pump, Appl. Surf. Sci., 253 (2006), 2941.
8.) M. Mozetič, A. Vesel, U. Cvelbar, A. Ricard, An iron catalytic probe for determination of the O-atom density in an Ar/O2 afterglow, Plasma chem. plasma process, 26 (2006), 103.
9.) V. Nemanič, M. Žumer, B. Zajec, T. Tyler, Getter requirements for a cathode ray tube with a diamond coated field emitter electron source, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), (2002), 1379.
10.) V. Nemanič, M. Žumer, B. Zajec, J. Pahor, M. remškar, A. Mrzel, P. Panjan, D. Mihailović, Field emission properties of Malybdenum dichalcogenide nanotubes, Appl. Phys. Letters, 82 (2003), 4573.
11.) V. Nemanič, B. Zajec, The influence of deuterium exposures on subsequent outgassing rate of an UHV system, Vacuum, 81 (2006), 556.


Type (examination, oral, coursework, project):
• seminar and oral exam

Students obligations:

• seminar and oral exam